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git cheat sheet
How to show the remote tracking branch?
git branch -vv
- Caution: Double verbose output is porcelain, so don't rely on it in scripts.
- There is no other non-porcelain way, obviously: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3631706/what-is-this-branch-tracking-if-anything-in-git/16162827#16162827
- For example useful when moving git servers.
How to show the changes of a stash?
git stash show --full-index
- For other output formats see the
How to quickly push a local branch to remote repository?
git push -u origin HEAD
- HEAD --> assumes local branch is checked out currently
- -u origin --> let's the local branch track the newly created remote one
How to write a git commit message?
- Read the excellent article How to Write a Git Commit Message
- In a nutshell the commit message should be a continuation of This commit will... and the first line shall be less than 50 chars. I prefer a limit of 70 chars though.
How to find diffs in the history of a file where a certain string was included?
git log -G'<regex> -- <filepath>'
How to delete a remote branch?
git push origin --delete <remote-branch-name>
How to prune the list of remote branches from deleted ones?
git fetch -p
- From the help: "Before fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no longer exist on the remote"
How to merge a branch up until a specific commit?
- Say you have a feature branch that is tracked remotely and that you use to create pull requests, e.g. on GitHub. You create commits locally and want to hold back commits when pushing.
- Solution is to have another local branch, that does not track a remote pendant.
- Let's call the local branch that is tracking a remote one (the one you're using for your PRs), the integration branch.
- So how do you merge only certain commits from you local-only branch (i.e. you could call it the staging branch) to your integration branch in order to push it to remote and initiate another PR?
- Do it like this
- Observe the commit hash of the commit you want to be included in the PR
git checkout <integratin-branch-name>
git merge <commit-hash-of-commit-you-wanna-pr>
- The merge will usually resolve in a fast forward
- This way the integration branch (a branch is really just a pointer to a certain commit) is moved to the commit you want to pull
How to make a local-only branch track a remote one?
- This is relevant if you already pushed a local branch to a remote repository, but have forgotten to setup tracking. In this case, when you type
git status, git won't show you how much commits the remote branch is behind your local one.
- To setup up a local branch to track an already existing remote branch do this:
git checkout <branch-name>, to ensure that you're in the right branch
git branch -u origin/<branch-name>, setting up an upstream branch
git status, to see how git is now able to tell if the two branches diverge in any way in terms of commits
How to obtain a list of changed files between two commits?
git diff --name-status <commit> <commit>
- -- name-status creates the list of changed files and prefixed each file with the type of change (A, D, M)
How to set user name and email address for a git repository?
git config user.name "Your Name"
git config user.email "Your Email Address"
- Hint: if you add the
--globalflag the above settings would be the default
How to create a git tag?
git tag -a -m "Tagging first version that is working, although various key objects still included." 0.1 HEAD
- -a --> unsigned tag
- -m --> a readable message
- 0.1 --> the tag name
- HEAD --> the commit the tag should be bound to
How to specify a particular commit in git (e.g. what does HEAD~1 mean)?
- There are a lot of ways to specify commits or ranges of commits
- Some examples:
- A good overview can be found at https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Tools-Revision-Selection
How to show the contents of a git commit in the command-line?
git show HEAD
How to show a tree-like representation of branches with git cli?
git log --graph --decorate --all
- --graph draws nice lines on the left side
- --decorate shows refs names next to commit hashes
- --all all refs
How to remove a file from the a git repository while keeping it in the working tree?
git rm --cached <file>
- the --cache flag takes care to not remove the file(s) from the working tree
How to amend a git commit with a commit message unchanged?
git commit --amend --no-edit